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Millennium Development Goals  

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), agreed to by all 191 United Nations Member States at the Millennium Summit in 2000, set specific targets for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation and discrimination against women by 2015. Among these targets, governments agreed to reduce by half, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation (UN 2005).

New health station near Lubango, Angola.
Source: Tump 2007
( click to enlarge )

A summary of the Millennium Develop Goals is provided in the box below.

Millennium Development Goals

Goal 1: Halve Extreme Poverty and Hunger

  • Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day;
  • Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people; and
  • Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.

Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education

  • Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.

Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

  • Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and at all levels of education no later than 2015.

Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality

  • Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.

Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health

  • Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio; and
  • Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health.

Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases

  • Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS; and
  • Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.

Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability

  • Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources;
  • Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss.
  • Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking-water and adequate sanitation; and
  • By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers.

Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development

  • Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system;
  • Address the special needs of the Least Developed Countries, landlocked countries and small island developing states;
  • Deal comprehensively with developing countries’ debt;
  • In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth;
  • In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable, essential drugs in developing countries; and
  • In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications technologies.
Source: United Nations 2007

At the midway point between the adoption of the MDGs in 2000 and the 2015 target date for achieving them, Angola and Namibia have achieved progress in several areas. Yet, the overarching goal of reducing extreme poverty and food insecurity by half seems to be out of reach (UN 2007).

Please visit the MDG Monitor to view progress goal by goal in Angola and Namibia.




Explore the sub-basins of the Kunene River

Video Interviews about the integrated and transboundary management of the Kunene River basin

View a historical timeline of the Kunene basin countries, including water agreements & infrastructure

Video scenes about the limited access to water of the San in Kunene Province