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In the course of the peace agreements in 2002, Angola took the opportunity to outline several development policies and plans to ensure that all Angolans may benefit in an equitable manner from the process of national reconstruction.

Development Plans at the National Level

Angola 2025: Long-Term Strategy
Reviews significant challenges in Angola – such as human development, weak economic situation, institutional instability, lack of health and education services, regional inequality – and establishes strategic options up to 2025 in order to realise growth in various sectors.

Strategy to Combat Poverty – ECP (2003/4) (Revised Edition 2005)
Main strategy document outlining several areas of intervention: social reintegration of refugees, displaced and demobilised persons; clearance of landmines; food security and rural development; containment of HIV/AIDS; increased access to education and health; expansion and reconstruction of basic infrastructure; promotion of employment and professional training; restructuring and decentralisation of the judicial system, public administration and financing; as well as macroeconomic stabilisation and economic growth. The ECP has been quite controversial for its emphasis on a “government-extension” approach while neglecting the strengthening of civil society, decentralisation of administrative and political power, and promotion of participatory governance.

National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2006)
Seeks to incorporate measures of conservation, sustainable use as well as equitable sharing of the benefits of biological diversity into development policies and programmes.

National Environmental Management Programme (PNGA) (2009)
Has five strategic sub-programmes: promotion of intersectoral coordination; protection of biodiversity, flora, terrestrial and marine fauna; ecosystem rehabilitation and protection; environmental management; as well as environmental education, information and awareness raising.

Medium-Term Development Plan: 2009-2013
In 2009 the Government of Angola approved the new medium-term development plan, refining and building upon the “Estratégia de Combate à Pobreza”.

Provincial & Municipal Development Plans

Each provincial government submits an annual socio-economic public investment programme (PIP) to reduce poverty through a series of projects that will provide key services (water, electricity, etc.) and restore infrastructure (e.g. roads, schools, health centres). The provincial plans form part of an effort to decentralise decision-making and are developed through consultation with municipal administrators and sometimes traditional leaders. The plans are appraised by the Directorate of Investment (in the Ministry of Planning) in Luanda and financed according to the Poverty Strategy priorities.

Relevant municipal plans and projects include, e.g., social development progress plans, municipal infrastructure rehabilitation projects, and transport plans.

Sources: adapted from ERM 2009 and UNDP Angola website 2010




Explore the sub-basins of the Kunene River

Video Interviews about the integrated and transboundary management of the Kunene River basin

View a historical timeline of the Kunene basin countries, including water agreements & infrastructure

Video scenes about the limited access to water of the San in Kunene Province