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Home The River Basin People and the River Governance Resource Management
The River Basin
Climate and Weather
Water Quality
Ecology & Biodiversity
 Aquatic Ecology
 Building Blocks
 Aquatic Habitats
 Life in Aquatic Ecosystems
 Food Chains & Webs
 Biomass & Production
 Classification of Organisms
 Factors Affecting Aquatic Ecosystems



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Invertebrates include all animals without a backbone. Invertebrates are far more diverse and abundant than vertebrates, and many groups of invertebrates are found in aquatic systems. Those living on or in aquatic sediments are termed benthic invertebrates. Benthic invertebrate communities are often used as indicators of aquatic ecosystem health, through the measurement of their population, abundance, and diversity.


Worms are an informal collection of three major groups, including flatworms (Platyhelminthes), roundworms (nematodes), and segmented worms (annelids). Flatworms include a major group that is free-living and often predatory (Turbellaria), and two major groups, Trematoda (flukes) and Cestoda (tapeworms), that are entirely parasitic as adults although their intermediate stages may be aquatic. The roundworm, dracunculus medinensis, also known as Guinea worm, is common to Africa as is the fluke worm, schistosoma.


Molluscs include the familiar groups of snails (gastropods) and bivalves (clams and mussels). A hard shell encloses, wholly or in part, the bodies of most molluscs. Snails feed by scraping biofilm from surfaces, collecting organic matter deposited in the sediment, consuming macrophytes, or feeding on decaying animals. Bivalves have gills, which they use both for breathing and for collecting small particles from the water.

Snails serve as intermediate hosts in the life cycle of schistosomiasis in Africa.

Orange-winged dropwing (Trithemis kirbyi), Namibia.
Source: Hillewaert 2007
( click to enlarge )


Insects are a highly diverse group and occupy most niches in the ecosystem. Most insects are terrestrial, while some have life stages, for example the larval stage, that are aquatic (e.g. dragonflies and mosquitoes). A few insects are entirely aquatic (e.g. aquatic beetles). While most aquatic insects live on or near the bottom of waterbodies, some (such as the larvae of the phantom midge Chaoborus) can swim higher in the water column. Most aquatic insects have gills and live in water with available dissolved oxygen; others, such as mosquito larvae, breathe through the surface film of still waters. Insects may be herbivores, carnivores, or detritivores. Stream and river insects are crucial in the processing of organic matter. Some scrape biofilm, others shred larger leaves into smaller particles, while still others filter or collect these smaller particles. This chain of processing reduces large organic matter to successively smaller and smaller particles.


Zooplankton are aquatic animals that cannot swim against water currents, typically because they are too small to do so. However, many zooplankton can swim significant distances in fairly still waters. Because they cannot swim against currents, they are more important in lakes than in running water, as running water usually carries them downstream faster than they can reproduce. They can, however, be abundant in large slow flowing rivers. Zooplankton are heterotrophic and are significant sources of energy and nutrients to carnivorous invertebrates and some vertebrates.

Toktokkie beetles mating.
Source: © Ostby 2007
( click to enlarge )




Explore the sub-basins of the Kunene River

Video Interviews about the integrated and transboundary management of the Kunene River basin

Explore the interactions of living organisms in aquatic environments

Examine how the hydrologic cycle moves water through and around the earth